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4-STAGE PRESSURE ULCER – LF00730
Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores or decubitus wounds, affect over one million adults every year. The wounds can range from superficial and mildly red on the skin surface to a deep open wound penetrating down to the bone with blackened or dead tissue and extreme infection. The Life/form® Pressure Ulcer Models are a set of four models that show all four wound stages. Use these models to teach the various stages or give instruction on the care and cleaning of the ulcers.
Intact skin with redness that does not whiten, usually over a bony prominence. A patient may feel the area is more painful, firmer, softer, warmer, or cooler as compared to other skin tissue.
Open wound that is reddening with partial skin loss of dermis, presenting a shallow open ulcer with a red-pink wound bed.
Deep open wound that reaches through all layers of skin and into the muscle. Full thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible, but bone, tendon, and muscle are not exposed.
Severe, deep open wound that reaches through all layers of skin and damages muscle, bone, tendons, and joints. Slough or eschar may be present on some parts. Often includes tunneling.
SKIN CANCER/MOLES – LF00731
Continued exposure to sunlight can cause damage to skin cells. If the damaged cells do not die or repair themselves, they degenerate and visible skin cancer develops.
The Life/form® skin cancer nursing wounds have been developed to assist with educating health care providers about the various types of skin cancer and what they may look like. The enlarged samples show a noncancerous mole, Melanoma, Basal Cell Carcinoma, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
- Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin cancer.
- Can spread rapidly. Is most common form of cancer found in Caucasians. In skin of color, melanoma is often developed on the sole of the foot.
- It is usually flat and irregular in shape and color, with varying shades of black and brown. It may occur at any age or body site.
- Four major types of melanoma: Superficial is the most common type of melanoma. It is flat and irregular in shape and color, with varying shades of black and brown. Nodular starts as a raised area, bluish-black and bluish-red. Lentigo usually occurs in the elderly. Most common, usually large, flat tan with intermixed areas of brown. Acral is the least common form of melanoma, mostly found in African Americans. It usually occurs on the palms, soles, or under the nails. Warning signs of Acral and other skin cancers in skin of color include bruise or sore that does not heal, stripe beneath nail, mole that is changing, scar (new or changing), flat patch of discolored skin, white patch of discolored skin, scaly patch with thickened skin and well-defined border, or white patch on tongue or inside mouth.
- A-symmetry B-borders C-color D-diameter E-elevation are symptoms of melanoma.
- Risk factors: family history, red or blond hair and fair skin, multiple birthmarks, development of precancerous sores, freckling, three or more blistering sunburns before age 20, high levels of exposure to strong sunlight. All nationalities should wear sunscreen.
- Prevention: protect yourself from sunlight’s damaging ultraviolet rays. Wear protective clothing.
Basal Cell Carcinoma:
- Slow growing form of skin cancer; most common skin cancer found in Hispanics.
- Almost never spreads, but if left untreated, it may grow into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone.
- Basal cell may appear as a skin bump or growth that is pearly or waxy, white or light pink, or flesh colored or brown. Some may be flat or rose.
- You may have a sore that bleeds easily, oozing or crusting spots in a sore, appearance of a scar-like sore without having injured an area, a sore with a depressed (sunken) area in the middle, or irregular blood vessels in or around the spot.
- Prevention: always use sunscreen. Skin exams should not be ignored.
- Examine color, size, texture, and appearance.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
- Squamous cell cancer occurs when cells in the skin start to change. The changes may occur in normal skin or in skin that has been injured or inflamed.
- Squamous cell spreads faster than basal cell, but may be relatively slow growing. The most common cancer found in African Americans.
- Symptoms: the main symptom of squamous cell skin cancer is a growing bump that may have a rough, scaly surface and flat, reddish patches. The bump is usually located on the face, ears, neck, hand, or arms, but may occur on other areas. A sore that does not heal or any change in an existing wart or mole or other lesion could be a sign of skin cancer.
- A biopsy and examination of the lesion can confirm whether it is squamous cell cancer.
- Prevention: reduce sun exposure. Wear protective clothing. Examine skin regularly.
- Treatment: depends on how much it has spread. Surgery to remove the tumor is often recommended. Radiation therapy may help reduce tumor size.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Note: Cancer samples are enlarged.
PILONIDAL CYST AND SEBACEOUS CYST – LF00732
A sebaceous cyst is a term that refers to either an epidermal or pilar (trichilemmal) cyst. Epidermal cysts originate in the epidermis, and pilar cysts originate from hair follicles. The scalp, ears, back, face, and upper arm are common sites for sebaceous cysts, because these areas are usually more hairy. Cysts are smooth to the touch, vary in size, and are generally round in shape.
- Common causes of sebaceous cysts include blocked sebaceous glands and swollen hair follicles.
- Hereditary causes of sebaceous cysts include Gardener’s syndrome and basal cell nevus syndrome.
- Pilonidal cysts typically occur between 15 and 24 years of age and are very painful. These cysts are usually found near the coccyx, but can also affect the navel, armpit, or genital region.
- Sebaceous cysts generally do not require medical treatment. If the cysts continue to grow, they may become painful and infected.
- Surgical excision of a sebaceous cyst is a simple procedure that completely removes the sac and its contents.
- Nonsurgical treatment involves using a heating pad on the cyst for 15 minutes twice daily for about 10 days.
- Surgical excision of the pilonidal cyst removes the pit of the cyst.
SKIN ABSCESS – LF00739
A skin abscess or boil is a localized infection deep within the skin. The abscess or boil usually begins as a tender red lump which becomes hard and firm to the touch.
Over time, the center of the abscess becomes soft and filled with infection-fighting white blood cells. The combination of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins (pus) forms a head that will eventually drain.
- Ingrown hair
- Foreign matter that gets lodged in the skin
- Plugged sweat glands that become infected
- Any break in the skin, cut, or scrape
- It is important to treat a boil IMMEDIATELY
- Boils are extremely contagious
- Boils can spread
- Keep skin clean — wash two times a day
- Use a quality cleanser
- Get proper nourishment
OSTOMIES – LF00738
A stoma is also referred to as an ostomy. A stoma is a surgically created opening that can be made almost anywhere in the body. The most common types of stomas are colostomies, ileostomies, and urostomies.
A stoma has the following features:
- It is red, which means it has a good blood supply and is healthy
- It is moist to the touch
- It can bleed easily
- It has no feeling
- It has no sphincter (no voluntary control)
Stomas vary from person to person in characteristics like shape, size, length, and output (drainage).
Stoma – A surgically created opening of the bowel or urinary tract to the body surface.
Infected Stoma – Some of the complications may include excessive bleeding, infection, dehydration, impacted feces, and skin complaints by contact with feces around the stoma.
Double Barrel Stoma – Where two distinct stomas are made and brought through the abdominal wall.
Prolapsed Stoma – The muscles holding the stoma weaken and allow the bowel to telescope out, increasing length of the stoma.
Stoma Necrosis – Defined as the death of stomal tissue due to impaired blood flow.
BLISTER/BLOOD BLISTER – LF00726U/LF00727U
A blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of skin. Causes are forceful rubbing, burning, freezing, infection, or chemicals. Most blisters are filled with plasma.
Blood blisters are filled with blood or with pus if they become infected.
Don’t puncture a blister unless it’s painful or prevents you from getting around or functioning normally.
To relieve blister pain, drain blister while leaving the overlying skin intact.
Tips on How to Care for a Blister:
- Wash your hands with soap and water
- Swab the blister with rubbing alcohol or iodine
- Sterilize a clean, sharp needle to puncture the blister
- Apply antibiotic ointment
- Cut away all dead skin
VENOUS STASIS ULCER – LF00792
Venous ulcers are wounds that are thought to be improper functioning of venous valves, usually in legs. There is not an exact reason why these ulcers occur, other than the valves, which prevent the backflow of blood, do not function properly, causing the pressure in the veins to increase. Venous stasis results in damage to the vein valvular system in the lower extremities.
- Edema (swelling)
- Pigment loss
- Ulcers circling the lower leg
- Rash/redness/brown discoloration
- Dry/scaly skin
- Burning or itching of skin
- Located below the knee
- Green or yellow discharge if ulcer is infected
- Fluid drainage
Venous stasis ulcers are common in patients who have a history of leg swelling, varicose veins, or a history of blood clots.
- Gently wash leg with mild soap (Ivory Snow®, Dreft®) and lukewarm water
- Do not rub skin area
- Examine your legs every day
- Look for blisters, cuts, cracks, or scratches
- Check for redness
- Apply lanolin-based cream on legs to prevent dry skin
Actual product may vary slightly from photo. Nasco reserves the right to change product color, materials, supplies, or function as needed.
The material used in creating lifelike wounds in the Basic Nursing Wound Simulation Kit are very delicate. Each wound is hand-painted with care. The colors and shapes may vary slightly.
Makeup used with the wounds may stain the model, trainer, or wound simulator. Use makeup with care. Take caution when applying wounds and makeup on to human models. Discontinue use and wash with warm, soapy water if irritation develops.
Solvents or corrosive materials will damage the simulator. Never place simulator on newsprint or any kind of printed paper or plastic. These materials will transfer an indelible stain. Ballpoint pen will also make an indelible stain.
CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE
The materials used in creating simulated wounds will become less tacky with use. Clean the wounds with warm, soapy water to remove glue and dirt. Dry with a clean towel or allow to air dry. Place a clean, dry wound in a resealable bag to extend the life of the product.
Stubborn soil can be treated with Nasco Cleaner. Apply a small amount of Nasco Cleaner to a clean, dry cloth. Apply to the soiled area, wiping gently.
LF00755 – Spirit Gum with Brush
LF00756 – Spirit Gum Remover
LF09919 – Nasco Cleaner
SB49386 – Skin Tite Adhesive
REPLACEMENT SUPPLIES FOR THE BASIC NURSING WOUND SIMULATION KIT
LF00726 – Blisters, 1 Roll, 7" x 10"
LF00727 – Blood Blisters, 1 Roll, 7" x 10"
LF00730 – Pressure Ulcers, Stages 1-4, Set of 4
LF00731 – Healthy Mole & Skin Cancer, Set of 4 (healthy mole, basil cell, squamous cell, & melanoma)
LF00732 – Cysts, Set of 2 (pilar & sebaceous)
LF00733 – Infected Cyst (pus-filled)
LF00738 – Ostomies, Set of 5 (double barrel, healthy, infected, prolapsed, necrotic)
LF00739 – Boils, Set of 3
LF00755 – Spirit Gum, 1 oz. w/Brush
LF00756 – Spirit Gum Remover, 2 oz.
LF00760 – Injury Shades Makeup Wheel
LF00762 – Special Effects Makeup Wheel
LF00775 – Grease Paint Makeup, Blue, 1/2-oz. Jar
LF00777 – Grease Paint Makeup, Clotted Red, 1/2-oz. Jar